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This study aimed to better understand the current situation of risk assessment and identify the factors associated with competence of emergency responders in public health risk assessment. The questionnaires that measured their perceptions on risk assessment competences were administered through the face-to-face survey. A final sample of staff was obtained. Of this sample, Most of the respondents
Measures of risk importance and their applications. The objectives of the project are to evaluate the importances of containment, the different safety functions, and other various contributers as assessed in probabilistic risk analyses and to identify generic conclusions regarding the importances.
Effective display of the importances is an important part of these objectives. To address these objectives, measures of risk importance need to be first identified and then they need to be evaluated for the different risk analyses which have been performed. The risk importance measures defined in this report measure the importance of features not only with regard to risk reduction but also with regard to reliability assurance, or risk maintenance. The goal of this report is not to identify new mathematical formulas for risk importance but to show how importance measures can be interpreted and can be applied.
Evaluations and utilizations of risk importances. Risk importances are determined for de features, plant operations, and other factors that can affect risk. PRA's can be used to identify the importances of risk contributors or proposed changes to des or operations. The objective of this report is to serve as a handbook and guide in evaluating and applying risk importances. The utilization of both qualitative risk importances and quantitative risk importances is described in this report. Qualitative risk importances are based on the logic models in the PRA, while quantitative risk importances are based on the quantitative of the PRA.
Both types of importances are among the most robust and meaningful information a PRA can provide. A wide variety of risk importance evaluations are described including evaluations of the importances of de changes, testing, maintenance, degrading environments, and aging. Specific utilizations are described in inspection and in reliability assurance programs, however the general approaches have widespread applicability.
The role of personal computers and decision support programs in applying risk importance evaluations is also described.
Import of metal scrap - risks associated with radioactivity. There is a growing concern in Sweden for the possibility that imported metal scrap is radioactive. The recent political and economical changes in eastern Europe and the increased cooperation with the CEC has affected Swedens import. In the last years, the import of metal scrap from the former USSR has increased considerably. In view of recent incidents, when radioactive materials have been found, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute has detected a need for identifying the potential risk sources and evaluating the magnitude of the risk associated with the import of metal scrap.
The purpose of this report is to provide some background material concerning import statistics, use of metal scrap in Sweden and to identify potential sources of radioactive metal scrap. In addition, the radionuclides of most concern has been identified and the possibility of detecting them in metal scrap shipments is analyzed. Importance measures for use in PRAs and risk management. There are many quantities estimated in probabilistic risk assessments PRAs to index the level of plant safety.
If the PRA is to be used as a risk management tool to assist in the safe operation of the plant, it is essential that those elements of the plant de and its mode of operation that have the greatest impact on plant safety be identified.
These elements may be identified by performing importance calculations. There are certain decisions that must be made before the importance calculation is carried out.
The first is the definition of the events for which importance is to be evaluated; that is, to what level of resolution the analysis is to be performed. The second decision that must be made--and the major subject of this paper--is the choice of importance measure. Many measures of importance have been proposed; this discussion is restricted to three: the risk achievement or degradation worth, the risk reduction worth, and criticality importance. In the paper these measures of importance are defined, their interrelationships are discussed, and a generalized importance measure is introduced.
The use of these three measures is compared and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.
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Importance and sensitivity of parameters affecting the Zion Seismic Risk. This report presents the of a study on the importance and sensitivity of structures, systems, equipment, components and de parameters used in the Zion Seismic Risk Calculations.
The objective of this study is to provide the NRC with on the importance and sensitivity of parameters used to evaluate seismic risk. These can assist the NRC in making decisions dealing with the allocation of research resources on seismic issues.
This study uses marginal analysis in addition to importance and sensitivity analysis to identify subject areas input parameter areas for improvements that reduce riskestimate how much the improvement dfforts reduce riskand rank the subject areas for improvements. Importance analysis identifies the systems, components, and parameters that are important to risk. Sensitivity analysis estimates the change in risk per unit improvement. Marginal analysis indicates the reduction in risk or uncertainty for improvement effort made in each subject area.
Risk importance measures in the dynamic flowgraph methodology. This paper presents new risk importance measures applicable to a dynamic reliability analysis approach with multi-state components. Dynamic reliability analysis methods are needed because traditional methods, such as fault tree analysis, can describe system's dynamical behaviour only in limited manner.
Dynamic flowgraph methodology DFM is an approach used for analysing systems with time dependencies and feedback loops. The aim of DFM is to identify root causes of a top event, usually representing the system's failure. Components of DFM models are analysed at discrete time points and they can have multiple states. Traditional risk importance measures developed for static and binary logic are not applicable to DFM as such.
Some importance measures have ly been developed for DFM but their ability to describe how components contribute to the top event is fairly limited. The paper formulates dynamic risk importance measures that measure the importances of states of components and take the time-aspect of DFM into in a logical way that supports the interpretation of. Dynamic risk importance measures are developed as generalisations of the Fussell-Vesely importance and the risk increase factor.
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Identifying and Managing Risk. The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is 1 to identify risk physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability2 to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk3 to transfer riskand 4 to track and….
Use of importance measures in risk -informed regulatory applications. The use of importance measures to analyze PRA is discussed.
Commonly used importance measures are defined. Some issues that have been identified as potentially limiting their usefulness are addressed, namely: there is no simple relationship between importance measures evaluated at the single component level and those evaluated at the level of a group of components, and, as a result, some of the commonly used importance measures are not realistic measures of the sensitivity of the overall risk to parameter value changes; and, importance measures do not typically take into parameter uncertainties which raises the question of the robustness of conclusions drawn from importance analyses.
The issues are explored in the context of both ranking and categorization of structures, systems, and components SSCs with respect to risk -ificance and safety-ificance for use in risk -informed regulatory analyses. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. E-marketplaces have been steadily growing and there have been ificant interest in e-business research. There are different risks and uncertainties involved with E-marketplaces, which jeopardizes the sector but we have had a large amount of hype and the business still continue to grow.
The primary aim of this study is to identify E-procurement risks and evaluate them using a fuzzy AHP framework. Estimating risks of importation and local transmission of Zika virus infection. Full Text Available Background. ZIKV is conveyed by a mosquito vector, Aedes species, which also acts as the vector species of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Arrival time of ZIKV importation i. Employing a survival analysis model in which the hazard is an inverse function of the effective distance as informed by the airline transportation network data, and using dengue and chikungunya virus transmission data, risks of importation and local transmission were estimated.
A total of 78 countries with imported case s have been identifiedwith the arrival time ranging from 1 to 44 weeks since the first ZIKV was identified in Brazil, Whereas the risk of importation was well explained by the airline transportation network data, the risk of local transmission appeared to be best captured by additionally ing for the presence of dengue and chikungunya viruses.
The risk of importation may be high given continued global travel of mildly infected travelers but, considering that the public health concerns over ZIKV infection stems from microcephaly, it is more important to focus on the risk of local and widespread transmission that could involve pregnant women. The predicted risk of local transmission was frequently seen in tropical and subtropical countries with dengue or chikungunya epidemic experience.
Identifying workers at risk of sickness absence by questionnaire. Background Sickness absence is an important economic problem, because of high costs and lost productivity. Determining factors associated with increased risk of sickness absence may lead to the development of preventive measures. Aims To determine whether self-report questionnaires can identify.
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Uses of risk importance measures. Risk importance measures provide an understandable and practical way of presenting probabilistic safety analysis which too often tend to remain abstract s without real insight into the content.
The report clarifies the definitions, relationships and interpretations of the three most basic measures: Risk increase factor, risk decrease factor, and fractional contribution. The above three measures already cover the main types of risk importance measures. Many other importance measures presented in literature are close variants to some of these three measures.
They are related in many cases so that, for a technical system considered, the two other measures can be derived from the one calculated first.